Access to improved sanitation technologies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is very low. Despite the importance of improved sanitation technologies in sanitation monitoring, little attention has been given towards the types and distributions of improved sanitation technologies used in SSA. This paper presents an analysis of the distribution of improved sanitation technologies in SSA, with particular emphasis on factors influencing their distribution. Study data was derived from demographic health surveys, multiple indicator cluster surveys and World Bank Development Indicators. Results showed that the pit latrine with slab was the most prevalent technology (21%), while the composting toilet had the least coverage (0.6%). Multiple regression analysis results showed positive significant relationships between the following: income and flush toilets connected to sewer (p = 0.000), urban population and flush toilets connected to septic tanks (p = 0.000), development assistance and pit latrine with slab (p = 0.035) and a negative relationship between population and flush toilets connected to pit latrines (p = 0.030). The paper concluded that selection of sanitation technologies is influenced by different factors. In addition, prevailing socio-economic conditions can result in selection of inappropriate technologies. Technology selection, however, should strive to strike a balance between the economic, environmental, human health and socio-cultural sustainability aspects of sanitation.
- improved sanitation technology
- sanitation technology
- sub-Saharan Africa
- technology selection
- First received 4 August 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 30 January 2017.
- © IWA Publishing 2017